The Lakewood Public Schools - 1984: A Compilation of Histories

E. George Lindstrom: Story of Lakewood, Ohio

Story of Lakewood, Ohio by E. George Lindstrom; Edited by Lawrence J. Hawkins
Published by the Author, 1462 Rosewood Ave., Lakewood, Ohio

Lakewood Public Schools by Charles P. Lynch

NOTE: When considering the publication of a Lakewood History some ten years ago, I asked the Late Superintendent of Schools, Charles P. Lynch, to write a chapter on education. That book, as then contemplated, never materialized but here is Mr. Lynch's paper, brought up to date by George W. Grill, Assistant Superintendent of Schools.
-E. George Lindstrom.

Rocky River, with its little port, gave to that part of Cuyahoga County lying about the mouth of the river, the name of Rockport Township.

Following the Ohio custom, which was also the custom of the whole Northwest Territory, this name was also given to the school district. The Rockport School District comprised a large number of subdistricts, nearly all of which had their own little, one-room schoolhouse. The importance of these small schoolhouses and their teachers on the educational and cultural life of the community can hardly be overestimated.

On Jan. 13, 1871, the electors of subdistricts numbers 6, 8, and 10 of Rockport Township were notified that an election would be held on January 28, A.D. 1871, for the purpose of voting on the question of joining said three subdistricts and organizing them into a separate school district. "Those in favor of said Separate School District should vote 'School,' those opposed should vote 'No School.'" The records show that "Twenty-Seven ballots were cast and on counting, all said ballots were found to be for 'School.'" Thus was formed the separate district which comprised what is now Lakewood. Thus early was foreshadowed the nearly unanimous support which the citizens of this district have already given to their public schools, a support which has brought outstanding national recognition.

At a meeting held March 2, 1871, a Board of Education was elected, consisting of Alfred Elwell, Richard Foy and C. C. Calkins. It is interesting to note that this election occurred at a Town Meeting, a form of school election still followed in many New England communities from which the ancestors of these 1871 citizens had emigrated to found homes in the Western Reserve. During all the years, even down to the present time, Lakewood has happily retained its community spirit and many of its public meetings partake of the nature of a "Town Meeting."

At an early meeting the Board adopted certain rules for the schools, among which was the following: Resolved, That in addition to Reading, Spelling and Writing, no scholar shall be required to study more than two of the following studies: viz., Geography, Arithmetic and Grammar.

This action requiring all pupils to take certain fundamental required subjects and listing certain others as electives was taken many years before President Eliot of Harvard recognized the desirability of a similar latitude in college courses. One might question the wisdom of the required and the elective groupings, but today no one would seriously question the wisdom of the elective process, as nearly all high schools and colleges have adopted it. Today, as in 1871, the same courses form the backbone of the curriculum, though for elementary school children the electives of 1871 have been moved over into the required list.

The Naming of School Buildings

It was voted "The Schools shall, for the present be designated as the East School, Middle School and West School, respectively. "

The three schools were all one room buildings, the "East School" where Garfield building now stands on Detroit Avenue opposite Grace Avenue, the "Middle School," where the Board of Education building now stands on Warren Road, and the "West School," on the site of McKinley School, West Clifton Boulevard. On August 2, 1879, the name of "Middle" School was changed to "Central" School.

There is a certain desirable and commendable forthrightness and directness about this plan of naming buildings. The names given immediately identified the school buildings and indicated their location. This simple procedure could not be continued down through the years because the number of buildings increased to such a point that the plan was impracticable. Later Boards of Education, however, followed somewhat the same principle in giving names to new school buildings. Lakewood High School is the natural name for the one high school in the district. It immediately identifies the school wherever the name is heard and any honor it receives as an educational institution is shared with the community in which it is located.

When school buildings began to multiply, the Board adopted the policy of honoring Ohio presidents by giving their names to buildings. Harrison, McKinley, Harding, Taft, Garfield and Hayes received their names as an outgrowth of this policy. But soon the number of buildings outgrew the number of Ohio presidents. Franklin School took its name from a great American and also from the name of the street on which it is located. The same process was followed in the naming of Emerson Junior High School. Lakewood High School moved out of its old overcrowded building on Warren Road to its commodious buildings at Franklin Avenue and Bunts Road in 1918 and the building which it left was then given the name of Wilson School, honoring the wartime president.

Prior to the construction of a school in the south central portion of Lakewood, a group of citizens living in that vicinity petitioned the Board that when a school might be built in their section of the city it be given the name of Roosevelt School. The Board gladly granted this request as every member was an ardent admirer of. Theodore Roosevelt whose strenuous years in the White House were still fresh in the memory of all citizens.

Horace Mann Junior High School honors the memory of one of America's greatest educators whose career was crowned by the presidency of Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio. Lincoln School was named for one of America's great presidents and Madison School on Madison Avenue also honors one of our early presidents.

Teachers in 1871

The teacher of "East" School was Miss Juliette Comstock; of "Middle" School, Miss E. C. Preston and of "West" School, Miss Bessie Brown. Each of these received a salary of thirty-five dollars a month.

While these salaries may seem low in comparison with the present average salary in excess of $2,000.00 per year, the expenses of a teacher in the good old days of 1871 were in proportion. Good board could be had at from two to three dollars per week with room rent thrown in, and no teacher's budget in those days included such items as summer school study, educational travel, extension courses, symphony concerts, theatres, silk stockings, payments on automobiles and other income consuming items which must be included in the budget of every modern teacher who desires to keep abreast of the trends of educational and cultural thought.

At a meeting of the Board held May 8, 1879, it was voted to build a new two-room brick building on the site of "Middle" School. On June 5th, the plans were changed to provide a four-room building. Over the entrance to this building may still be seen, "East Rockport Central School, 1879."

Many of the older citizens of Lakewood received their early education in this building. For the past twenty years it has served as School Headquarters Building, housing the administrative, supervisory, and business staffs of the school system. In the sense that it is the headquarters building, it is still the "Central School" of Lakewood.

With the opening of this new building, Mr. S. H. Herriman was chosen first superintendent and teacher of the higher grades at a salary of $900.00 a year.

With himself there were now four teachers in the East Rockport Schools.

Lakewood has been served by a notable line of school superintendents. Mr. Herriman continued in office until 1882. He was succeeded by William Lippert, who guided the destinies of the school system from September 1882 until August 1888. Charles J. Weeks, whose wife was the first graduate of Lakewood High School and whose daughter is now a teacher in the system, became the next superintendent, serving from 1888 to 1896. For nearly twenty years after his retirement from the superintendency, he continued to teach history in Lakewood High School. Mr. Weeks was succeeded by J. M. H. Frederick, who remained in office until the middle of the school year 1910-11. He later became the Superintendent of Schools in Cleveland.

Mr. Frederick was succeeded by Charles P. Lynch, who was brought to Lakewood from the principalship of West High School. His period of office, which terminated with his retirement in 1927, saw Lakewood grow from a village to a city, and a corresponding change in its educational equipment and point of view. He had a hand in the construction of the present Lakewood High School, three junior high schools, and five of the elementary buildings, as well as annexes to various other school buildings.

Upon Mr. Lynch's retirement in 1927, Mr. Julius E. Warren was secured as his successor. He had been serving as Assistant Superintendent in Springfield, Massachusetts. The early years of his administration were devoted largely to a nationally famous curriculum revision project. Copies of the Lakewood Course of Study have found their way into nearly every teachers' college library in the nation and have formed the basis of the course in many cities.

In August of 1934, Mr. Warren left Lakewood to become the Superintendent of Schools in Newton, Massachusetts. The Board chose as his successor Mr. George A. Bowman, who for the previous six years had headed the schools in Marion, Ohio. The fine progress which the cause of education is making in Lakewood is abundant evidence of the wisdom of the Board's choice.

East Rockport Becomes Lakewood Hamlet

On December 19, 1885, East Rockport became Lakewood Hamlet and at a meeting of the Board of Education held March 5, 1900, the following resolution was adopted: "That, whereas, by virtue of a resolution adopted by the Board on the 2nd day of March, 1871, this district was named and designated, The 1st Separate School District of Rockport, and whereas, such name is misleading by reason of the fact that there are two other special districts in Rockport Township bearing somewhat similar names, therefore be it resolved, that said Resolution adopted on the 2nd day of March, 1871 be and the same is hereby rescinded and repealed, and be it further resolved that here and after the passage of this Resolution this School District shall be known and designated as Lakewood Hamlet Special School District." The School Census of this new district numbered 215. That was in 1900. The total number of children of school age in the district at the present time (1936) is in excess of 13,000, of which approximately 10,500 are enrolled in the public schools, the remainder in private and parochial schools or at work on school working permits. So far as can be ascertained, every child of school age is in some approved educational institution or accounted for in some legitimate manner. The small buildings which served the district at the beginning of the century have been increased in number and size.

Since those early days "East" School, (now Garfield) has grown to a sixteen-room building; "West" School, (now McKinley) to a twenty-two-room building and "Central" School (now Grant) to a fifteen-room building.

In the course of years, the following new buildings have been erected and to these in turn additional rooms have been built, until Lakewood has the following elementary buildings: Harrison, 27 rooms; Franklin, 12 rooms; Lincoln, 27 rooms; Madison, 19 rooms; Roosevelt, 24 rooms; Hayes, 26 rooms; Taft, 12 rooms; and Wilson School (old High School) 20 rooms.

In the Fall of 1917, the Board of Education approved a resolution presented by the Superintendent recommending the change from the traditional 8-year Elementary, and 4-year High School plan to the so-called Junior High School plan, of 6-year elementary, 3-year Junior, and 3-year High School.

The Junior High School scheme involved a building program continuing through a considerable period of years and was to provide a new High School building and such Junior High buildings as would meet the ultimate needs of the community.

Work was begun at once on the purchase of an 18-acre site and the erection of a million dollar High School building.

This building was not ready for occupancy until October 1918, when approximately two thousand children from the seventh to the twelfth grades, inclusive, filled the corridors and classrooms to overflowing. Lakewood High School, which now houses only the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades, and a few post graduate students, has an enrollment of 2,700 in 1936 and is one of the great high schools of Ohio and the nation. The Main Building, housing academic activities and the principal's office suite; the women's building, housing the school cafeteria, the hospital, the music classes, the home economic classes, and other activities in which presumably girls are most vitally interested; and the men's building, housing the shop, foundry, commercial departments, school book store, and some of the study halls, were all occupied at the same time. Since then, the Briggs Swimming Pool, named in honor of Claude P. Briggs, principal from 1920 to 1927, has been added to the school plant; also the greenhouse, the grandstand on the athletic field, and the connecting corridors between the women's building and the Main Building and between the women's building and the men's building.

Lakewood High School has been served by a notable series of principals. Mr. Lippert, Mr. Weeks, and Mr. Frederick, previously referred to as superintendents, had also been, in their time, principals of the High School. Mr. Frederick was succeeded in the principalship by Mr. Herbert W. Kennedy, whom many of the older prominent graduates of the high school still refer to lovingly as "Mike" Kennedy. In 1917, Mr. Robert L. Short, Principal of West Technical High School in Cleveland, was employed to serve as “Director of High Schools" and upon the resignation of Mr. Kennedy in 1918, Mr. Short became the principal of the High School, holding that office until May 5, 1920. For the remainder of that school year, Mr. B. A. Gates served as the Acting Principal of the school. During the summer of 1920 the Board of Education and Superintendent Lynch conducted a nation-wide search for a worthy principal of school which they believed could be made one of the great high schools of the nation. Their choice fell upon Mr. Claude P. Briggs of Rockport, Illinois, and he assumed the duties of the office in September of that year. Seven years later, almost to the day, .he died very suddenly in the midst of making preliminary plans for the opening of school. He was succeeded by John C. Mitchell, then serving as Assistant Principal. Mr. Mitchell is still guiding the destinies of the school with the assistance of Mr. Robert L. Meeks, Assistant Principal, and Miss Lucy Helen Kimball, Dean of Girls.

Junior High Schools

Four school sites were secured on which, ultimately, to erect four junior high school buildings, to serve the four quarters of the city.

Three of these have been built: Emerson in northeast Lakewood, Horace Mann in northwest Lakewood and Harding in southwest Lakewood, at a cost of about a half million each. The fourth will come as the need demands.

The name, "Washington Junior High School" has tentatively been given to the fourth junior high school when and if built. The five acre lot north of Franklin Avenue opposite Lakewood High School was purchased by the Board for this purpose.

Miss Mabelle A. Monson has served as principal of Emerson Junior High School since its establishment. She has had much to do with establishing the philosophy and practice of junior high administration in Lakewood. When Horace Mann Junior High School was completed in 1923, Mr. H. Dale Davis was brought from Wichita, Kansas, to serve as its principal. Upon his resignation, Mr. Caspar C. Clark was secured to head this important institution and has continued in that capacity down to the present time.

When Harding Junior High School was ready for occupancy in 1925, Robert L. Meeks was transferred from a teaching position at Lakewood High School to the principalship of Harding, where he remained for three years, when he was transferred back to Lakewood High as Assistant Principal. Mr. Samuel S. Dickey was then brought into the Lakewood Schools as Principal of Harding from the principalship of Detroit Junior High School in Cleveland. Mr. Clark and Mr. Dickey have made notable contributions to community life and activity in Lakewood through the instrumentality of the Lakewood Kiwanis Club.

Elementary School Principals

Lakewood pupils, parents, and teachers have been blessed in the high quality of the persons who have served as principals of the elementary schools, as well as of the junior and senior high schools. Limitations of space preclude the possibility of extended comment on their many fine qualities, but for historical purposes a complete list down to 1936 is given of the persons who have served the various Lakewood elementary schools in this important capacity.

Franklin - Mabelle A. Monson, Bertha Wagar, Luella Oberholster, Rachel I. Bevington, Eva D. Mayer, Ethel Griffiths.

Garfield (formerly East School) - Mrs. W. D. Pudney, J. Dwinell, Charles J. Weeks, G. W. Jenkins, H. D. Caldwell, A. C. Bagnall, Mabelle A. Monson, Rachel I. Bevington, Ethel Griffiths.

Grant (formerly Central School) - S. H. Herriman, Wm. Lippert, Charles Weeks, Bertha Wagar, Emily Cain, Flora J. Wilcox.

Harrison (formerly South School) - Margaret A. O'Connor, Grace Daugherty.

Hayes - Edith M. Curren.

Lincoln - Emma H. Weidel, Anna L. Sigler.

Madison-Mabelle A. Monson, Ada B. Gedney, Sylvia Kleinsmith.

McKinley (formerly West School) - Emily Cain, Luella Oberholtzer, Caroline E. Martin, Florence Rogers.

Roosevelt - Gertrude E. Risley, Rachel I. Bevington.

Taft - Mary Sloane.

Wilson - Flora J. Wilcox.

Wilson School Building on Warren Road has had an interesting history. When the high school enrollment outgrew the old Middle, or Central School on Warren Road, the Board of Education acquired the land on the east side of Warren Road from the Wagar heirs and proceeded to build what was then a monumental building to house the high school. This building was dedicated in 1904, with impressive ceremonies attended by educators and prominent citizens from all over Northeastern Ohio.

As Lakewood grew in population, the building became more and more crowded. During the last several years of its occupancy for high school purposes, it was operated on the two shifts per day basis, which students and teachers found to be quite unsatisfactory.

When the High School moved into the fine new set of buildings provided for it at Franklin Avenue and Bunts Road in October of 1918, the name of the old building on Warren was changed to Wilson School, and the overcrowded conditions in Grant School on the west side of Warren Road were relieved by the transfer of the fifth and sixth grades to the building across the street. Other parts of the building were occupied by classes for the special and industrial students. In 1929 and 1930, overcrowded conditions in Harding Junior High School were somewhat relieved by opening seventh grade junior high classes in Wilson building. This composite educational condition prevailed until February 1932, when the building was closed for economy reasons relating to the depression, then at its height. The pupils occupying the building were shifted into rooms and classes in nearby schools.

During the period that the building was closed, sentiment in the community was sounded by the school administrative officers to ascertain if there was any demand for or support for a self-supporting junior college in Lakewood. The results of this investigation were not quite unanimously negative.

In December of 1933, the building was opened as a recreation center, becoming the headquarters of the Department of Public Recreation, the Y. M. C. A., and many other community organizations. Various rooms in the building were furnished by the Women's Club, the College Club, the P.T.A. Council, the Rotary Club, the Lion's Club, the High Y Mothers' Club, and other similar groups. During this period, its activities were largely governed by the Senior Advisory Council, under the chairmanship of Mrs. Maude McQuate. There was also a Junior Advisory Council. The building was managed and administered by Miss Sophie T. Fishback, the Director of Recreation, and her assistants.

The defeat at the polls in November 1935 of the special recreation levy, necessitated the closing of the building for recreation purposes. Grant School, and the west side of Warren Road, is again congested, and at the time of the rewriting of this chapter, the future use of the building is a subject for discussion in school board and administrative circles.

Public Recreation in Lakewood

Back in 1922, "the spirit of play in the city streets" (to use the phrase of Jane Adams), combined with the growing automobile traffic menace, motivated the members of the Lakewood Women's Club to seek to provide supervised playgrounds for children during the long summer vacation. These efficient ladies passed the hat in the community and raised approximately $1,000.00, which was used to provide proper supervision for the playgrounds operated on school grounds and in city parks during the summer of that year. A similar plan was fallowed the following summer, with the exception that the sum raised by popular subscription was augmented by an appropriation from the treasury of the municipality. Similar service was provided for the summer of 1924 and 1925 wholly by subventions from the municipal treasury.

In the meantime, laws had been enacted by the General Assembly of Ohio permitting communities to vote special levies for recreation purposes. In a joint meeting of the Board of Education and the City Council held during the summer of 1925, it was decided that the Board of Education would submit such a levy to the voters at the November election in the amount of one-tenth of a mill and that hereafter the direction of public recreation in the community would be in the hands of the Board of Education. By a hearty majority, the Lakewood voters approved this levy. Geo. E. Bickford of Kenosha, Wisconsin, was employed as Director of Public Recreation, assuming office on June 1, 1926, and serving in that capacity until 1930. Upon his resignation Miss Sophie T. Fishback was employed to fill the vacancy, coming to Lakewood from Stamford, Connecticut. Miss Fishback's resignation became effective December 31, 1935.

The special recreation levy was defeated by a few votes at the November 1935 election, but was resubmitted to the voters at a special election held February 4, 1936, and approved for a two-year period.

Members of the Board of Education

Throughout its history, the Board of Education, which is the legislative body of the School District, has had among its members some of the most outstanding citizens of the community. Official records of the Board run back to 1871, at which time the members of the Board were A. M. Wagar, of the famous Wagar family, Alfred Elwell, and C. G. Calkins, who served as Clerk of the Board as well as member.

During the decade from 1871 to 1881, the official records indicate Board of Education service by the following persons: Dr. Richard Fry, for whom Fry Avenue was named; William E. Clark, James Keyser, C. W. Hotchkiss, James Cannon, who gave his name to Cannon Avenue; E. R. Andrews, of the famous Andrews family whose family names are perpetuated in Andrews, French and Virginia Avenues; Ezra Nicholson, whose contribution to the history of Lakewood is adequately treated in another chapter; Silas Gleason, S. S. Hutchins, Archer Webb, of the famous Webb family whose descendants are numbered among our prominent and useful citizens; and J. E. Canfield, Jr., who also served as Clerk of the Board.

The decade from 1881 to 1891 saw the repetition of some of the same names in the annals of the Board: John C. Hall, whose name was given to Hall A venue; D. L. Oviatt, D. A. Wagar, D. H. Wagar, P. S. Clampett, John French, who was related to the Andrews family; Mark Thompson, Julius Sothern, T. C Hall and J. C. Andrews, who also served as Clerk of the Board.

The concluding decade of the nineteenth century brought to the councils of the Board the good judgment of O. F. Lapham, E. O. Peets, Charles Greening, George Loveland, Dr. J. F. Hobson, Robert Welfare, U. W. Hird, who was treasurer of the Plain Dealer Publishing company at the time of his death in 1936; William Prutton, C. K. Bitthoffsky, O. B. Hannan, and Maurice Welfare, who also served as Clerk of the Board. Dr. Hobson was a famous family physician and good citizen of the community for more than forty years. Maurice Welfare came to the United States as manager of Richard Mansfield, the famous English actor, and later became manager of the Cleveland Opera House and established a home in Lakewood.

During the early years of the present century, the Board records reveals the names of Otto C. Muelhauser, J. O. Gorden, and Frank R. Thrall, all of whom served not only as members but as Clerk of the Board. Also J. M. Wright, W. D. Pudney, George J. Baum, and John B. Coffinbury.

An outstanding group of people served the educational interests of the community around the year 1910. These gentlemen, Otto W. Carpenter, Jacob C. Hoffman, George F. Hart, Robert G. Curren and Frank M. Barton, adopted the resolutions which made Charles P. Lynch the Superintendent of Schools, an office which he held for nearly seventeen years. Mr. Carpenter was a well known life insurance man. Mr. Curren is frequently referred to as the "Lakewood Warwick" because of his long service as city solicitor and his activity in mayoralty campaigns. Mr. Barton was a famous publisher of religious books and magazines.

The members of the board who negotiated the purchase from Mrs. Bertha G. McMyler of the eighteen acres of land now comprising the campus of Lakewood High School and who were responsible for the construction of the school were Benjamin D. Fuller, David G. Jaeger, Mrs. Belle T. Graber, Wm. F. Ulrich, Otto F. Leopold and A. G. Gibson. During this period Mr. P. T. Harrold served as Clerk of the Board, but was not a member.

The members who served from 1920 to 1930 made educational history. Frank L. Sessions, Cleveland R. Cross, Mrs. Bernice S. Pyke, A. F. Allen, R. B. Robinette and Mrs. Mina L. Nase, achieved national prominence as the model school board. With only two negative votes recorded in the minute books during a ten year period, these board members built three new junior high schools and later built annexes to all three; they built Taft, Hayes and Roosevelt elementary schools and a total of ten annexes to various elementary buildings; they built the swimming pool, the grandstand and the connecting corridors between buildings at the High School; they established the policy which the board has continued since to follow with respect to high school fraternities and sororities, compulsory vaccination, medical and dental services; they accepted Mr. Lynch's resignation and employed Mr. Warren as his successor; and they unified the administration of the school system under the superintendent by changing the title of the Clerk of the Board to that of Assistant Superintendent of Schools.

Major John M. Snead served a four year term as member of the Board ending December 31, 1935. During most of these years he was the chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Sites.

The present members of the Board are T. F. McDonald, president; Morris H. Phillips, vice president; Mrs. Jean B. Dawson, Arthur J. Hudson and Melville W. Vickery.

The earliest available financial records of the Board of Education date back to the school year 1870-1871 when the following appropriations were made:

For continuing schools, etc . . . . . . . . . $2,400.00
Buildings and Contingent purposes . . $3,900.00
      Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6,300.00

Following this appropriation, the five recorded teacher contract was made with Miss E. C. Preston to teach school for an indefinite time at the rate of $50 per month or $2.50 per day. Some idea of the growth of Lakewood, educationally speaking, may be gained by comparing above figures with the budget for 1928, during which year a total of $1,373,900.00 was spent "for continuing schools, etc." This figure included nearly a million dollars for salaries of teachers, and more than one hundred thousand for salaries of custodians, the remainder of the amount being spent for salaries of other employees, educational supplies, repairs, upkeep, etc.

The high water mark was reached in the calendar year 1930, when the total expenditures aggregated $2,057,449.84, of which amount $1,452,013.20 represented expenditures in the General (or operating) Fund for "continuing schools."

The depression left its mark on education in Lakewood. Every effort was made to mitigate the severity of its effects on the personnel of the school system. For the school year 1931-32, the customary annual increments of $100.00 per teacher per year were continued, but a three percent cut was made in all salaries. Thereafter the annual increments were suspended. During the following school year, an additional cut on a graduated scale, but averaging 14 per cent was made in all salaries. Also, all employees were required to take a two weeks payless vacation.

For the school year 1933-34, the same scale of percentage cuts was continued and a three weeks payless vacation in addition was decreed. In 1934-35 the percentage cuts were continued and a one week payless vacation served to solve the financial problem along with the refunding of certain bond maturities. The school year was restored to its normal length of 38 weeks in 1935-36 but the percentage cuts remained in operation.

The Boundaries of the Lakewood City School District

For historical reasons it should be stated that the boundaries of the Lakewood City School District are coterminous with the boundaries of Lakewood. Many school districts in Ohio have irregular boundaries coinciding with the municipal boundaries in part and not coinciding in other parts. The possibility always exists that suburban communities may be merged with the parent city either through direct annexation or through some county merger plan. As the years come and go, there is a tendency for the old community boundaries to become blurred in the recollections of future generations, and this statement is inserted in this chapter in order to set any future doubts at rest with respect to the school district boundary lines.

Lakewood Schools have always had a good name. Records show a very high percentage of pupils completing the High School courses and continuing study in higher institutions of learning. Reports received from time to time of students in colleges and normal schools have always been a continuing matter of pride.

The record of graduates and former students of the Lakewood schools in the larger life of the world is also a matter of pride and gratification. No major industry, financial institution or profession is without its quota of persons educated in the Lakewood Public Schools, and the culture and social life of the metropolitan area is permeated with the Lakewood spirit.

That intangible yet very tangible something we call "School Spirit" has held the whole community, Board of Education, teachers, parents and pupils in a homogeneous body working together harmoniously, each for the good of all.

George W. Grill, former Assistant Superintendent of the Lakewood Schools, edited a paper on the history of the Lakewood Schools by Charles P. Lynch, former Superintendent of the Lakewood Schools (1910-1927). The paper appeared in a book by E. George Lindstrom, entitled The Story of Lakewood.